The online home of Arvid Nelson, writer of Rex Mundi & Zero Killer


The Atomic Number of Mithril

aluminum foil

Stronger than dragon scale?

"Its worth was ten times that of gold, and now it is beyond price; for little is left above ground, and even the Orcs dare not delve here for it."

Mithril, the ultra-light, ultra-strong and ultra-rare metal of Middle Earth, has always fascinated me. When I first read Lord of the Rings I assumed it was magical, but I re-read the descriptions of it, and guess what – mithril is never explicitly described as such. It's just very rare. "Magical" in the poetic sense, like gold.

If mithril is a "real" metal, not a magical or fictitious one, what could it be? I have an inkling, and it's both prosaic and surprising. Let's go through all the known properties of the stuff:

• Very malleable; that is, able to be shaped without breaking or cracking.
• Very lightweight.
• Harder than steel.
• Similar in appearance to silver.
• Resistant to tarnish and corrosion.
• Very, very rare.

There is only one metal that fits all of these characteristics perfectly: Aluminum.

Yes, Aluminum. Aluminium is very malleable – check. That's why it's so easy to produce as cooking foil. Aluminum is very lightweight and much stronger than steel – check. In fact, jet airplanes couldn't fly without aluminium. Similar in appearance to silver – check, and resistant to tarnish and corrosion – check, thanks to the phenomenon of passivation.

"But wait a minute, Mr. Smart Guy", you say. "Aluminium is about as rare as dirt". Ah-hah. Yes, that's true – now. But, before the late 1800s, no one knew how to extract the metal from its ore. The big secret, apparently, was zapping the ore with electricity at a the right time during the smelting process. Before people figured that out, aluminum was literally rarer than platinum. So rare emperors served their most important dinner guests on aluminum, while everyone else had to make due with plain-old gold.

There is still the question of "ithildin", the magical stuff that could only be seen in moonlight, which the Elves made from mithril. My guess is ithildin is probably mithril with some kind of enchantment worked into it – how or why the enchantment worked, and why it only worked on mithril, I have no idea.

But it seems pretty clear aluminum is a strong potential candidate for mithril, at the very least. And I don't think it cheapens or "takes the magic out of" mithril; just the opposite, in fact. If Tolkien really did mean for aluminum to be the secret identity of mithril, he was making a pretty powerful statement about how much perceptions and scarcity shape reality. Something we take so utterly for granted was, a thousand years ago, the most priceless stuff on Earth.

Think about that the next you toss a soda can into a recycling bin! The atomic number of mithril is 13.

Comments (6) Trackbacks (0)
  1. I am wondering how effective Aluminum Chain Mail would be. Tempered aluminum, is of course, used in aircraft construction. but I am not sure about making chain mail out of it.

  2. Only one way to find out – call Mythbusters!

    If I’m ever inspired to make my own homemade mithril chain mail out of old soda cans, I promise, I’ll post the results for all to see. :)

  3. Excellent article! Very nicely done, Arvid. :-)

    The only flaw I see is that metal made from Mithril was supposedly harder than tempered steel, and the strongest aluminum alloys in use today are barely as strong or as hard as mild steel.

    Perhaps those clever clever dwarves figured out how to sinter aluminum oxide, and the ignorant masses mistook this hard, strong ceramic for a metal? (You see people mistakenly refer to tungsten carbide as a metal all the time, so it’s not that far-fetched.)

  4. Oh noe! So much for that theory.

    I guess maaaaybe my only hope is that steel produced with medieval methods is not as hard as modern steel. I wouldn’t even know how to find that out.

    But I love the idea mithril might be sintered Al2O3… I wonder if aluminum oxide ceramics are used in the real world…

  5. Oh, yes, they are (!
    As a researcher, I saw it being used to encapsulate electronic devices that have to be cooled down. As aluminum oxide is a good thermal/bad electrical conductor, you can glue an electronic device on it, cool it down with a TEC (Peltier) or water recilying pump, and care not for electric troubles.
    More applications on the linked page.

  6. Fascinating! Not only does aluminium protect against orcs and goblins, it also protects against lighting bolts and leaking electrons.

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